Journal of Public Health International

Current Issue Volume No: 5 Issue No: 3

ISSN: 2641-4538
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Research Article Open Access
  • Available online freely Peer Reviewed
  • Provisional

    An Assessment of The Knowledge, Risk Perception and Attitudes of Healthcare Workers in A Tertiary Health Facility in Southwest Nigeria to The Covid 19 Pandemic

    Adeniyi MA 1   Olajide TG 2   Aderukuola B 3   Popoola GO 4   Olasehinde KO 1   Adegbiji WA 5  

    1Department of Community Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti state

    2Department of ENT, Federal Teaching Hospital, Afe-Babalola University College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ekiti, Nigeria

    3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti state

    4Department of Mental Health, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti state

    5Department of ENT, Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

    Abstract

    Aim

    Covid 19 is a pandemic that has ravaged the world resulting in thousands of deaths. This study aims to assess the knowledge, risk perception, and attitude of health care workers (HCWs) to the pandemic.

    Methodology

    This was a hospital based descriptive cross sectional study conducted among health care workers who were staff of the hospital. Data collected includes socio demographic characteristics, data on knowledge, risk perception and attitude.

    Results

    A total of 288 HCWs participated in the study. Participants had good knowledge at 95.6%, major source of knowledge includes internet/social media 68.8%, radio 34.6% and television 28.3%. About 92.6% of the respondents also had positive attitude while 89.75 of the respondents had a positive risk perception.

    Conclusion

    Overall, there was a high level of knowledge, high positive attitude and a high risk perception in the study. Consequently, to ensure that this high level is maintained, there is need for continuous health education and promotion.

    Author Contributions
    Received 26 Aug 2022; Accepted 03 Oct 2022; Published 18 Oct 2022;

    Academic Editor: Ian James Martin, Edith Cowan University, USA

    Checked for plagiarism: Yes

    Review by: Single-blind

    Copyright ©  2022 Adeniyi MA, et al.

    License
    Creative Commons License     This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

    Competing interests

    The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

    Citation:

    Adeniyi MA, Olajide TG, Aderukuola B, Popoola GO, Olasehinde KO et al. (2022) An Assessment of The Knowledge, Risk Perception and Attitudes of Healthcare Workers in A Tertiary Health Facility in Southwest Nigeria to The Covid 19 Pandemic. Journal of Public Health International - 5(3):36-50.

    Download as RIS, BibTeX, Text (Include abstract )

    DOI 10.14302/issn.2641-4538.jphi-22-4294

    Introduction

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2), is the pathogen that causes coronavirus disease2019 (COVID-19), and is one of the most contagious viruses in human history1,2It is a highly communicable viral respiratory infectious disease with potential life-threatening complications.3,4,5It is a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family of coronaviridae and it is commonly transmitted through contact with infected respiratory droplets.3,6,7 The incubation period of COVID-19 is 1 – 14 days while its common symptoms include fever, cough, dyspnoea and headache.1,3,4In addition, severe COVID-19 disease can lead to serious complications such as encephalitis, acute myocardial infection, renal failure, and multi-organ failure.1,2,4,7

    There is no specific treatment for this disease, so health care providers treat the clinical symptoms (e.g. fever, difficulty inbreathing) which the patients present with. Supportive care (e.g. fluid management, oxygen therapy, etc.) can be highly effective for patients with symptoms.8

    The first reported case of Covid-19 in Nigeria was in Lagos and this was reported by the Federal Ministry of Health on the 27th of February, 2020.10 As at 8th June, 2020 over 800 healthcare workers in Nigeria has been infected with the disease.11 As at 16th of September, 2020 there are 56604 confirmed cases with 1091 deaths.9Since the outbreak the Nigerian government, like other global community adopted measures to contain the spread of the disease. Some of these measures include social distancing, ban on public gathering including religious gatherings, continuous personal hygiene such as hand washing and use of hand sanitizers; use of face masks, limiting number of passengers in public vehicles, locking down public places etc.18These measures have not been effective due partly to lack of government enforcement, poor knowledge and attitude of the citizen.

    Statement of Problem

    Globally, around 14% of COVID-19 cases reported to WHO are among health workers, and in some countries it’s as much as 35%. The WHO estimates that over 41,000 health workers in Africa have been infected with COVID-19 as at 17/09/2020.19

    Benefit

    It is hoped that this study will help to improve the knowledge of HCWs, make HCWs more aware and have a better understanding of the risks inherent in the Covid 19 pandemic and thereby improve their attitude and with an improved attitude reduce the risk of infection with Covid 19.

    It is also hoped that this research will enable policy maker make informed and evidence based policies to better the lot of HCWs in the hospitals and the communities at large.

    Furthermore, a better knowledge, a better understanding of the risks and a good attitude will make adherence to the preventive protocols put in place by the government and respective hospital managements easy to adhere to and follow.

    Objectives

    This study aims to assess the knowledge risk perception and attitude of healthcare workers in a tertiary health facility to the Covid 19 pandemic

    Methodology

    This is a descriptive cross sectional study carried out in a tertiary health centre located in Ido – Osi Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The study targets HCWs who are staff of the facility.

    Ekiti State is located in the South-western part of Nigeria. Ido Ekiti town is the capital of Ido – Osi LGA which is one of the 16 LGAs in Ekiti State. It is also a semi – urban LGA.12Ido-Osi LGA lies within latitude 7046.715’N and 7055.822’N and longitude 508.410’E and 5014.416’E.13 The study was carried out in the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti which is one of the three tertiary health facilities located within the state. The other two tertiary health centres are located in the state capital Ado – Ekiti.12

    Ido – Osi local Government is basically agarian with people cultivating root crops and grains such as yams, cassava, maize, rice etc. There are a few cottage industries in the local Government devoted primarily to processing of Agricultural produce. Other industrial undertaking is in the area of printing, bakeries, weaving, carpentry etc.12

    Sample Size Determination

    n = Z2 x P (1 - P)/ E2

    Where Z standard normal deviate at 95% = 1.96

    P proportion of HCW with good knowledge in a similar Study = 78.615

    E Level of error = 5%



    For non-response rate compensation

    ns = n/0.9

    ns = 259/0.9

    = 288

    Therefore, 288 HCWs participated in the study

    Sampling Technique

    All consenting HCWs in the tertiary health facility were recruited for the study until the sample size was met. Self-Administered Questionnaires were administered on them within the hospital premises.

    Sampling Instrument / Tool

    Data was collected using pre tested semi-structured self-administered questionnaires which was administered by the researchers and their trained assistants.

    Pre testing of the questionnaire was done at the Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital (EKSUTH) located at Ado Ekiti. Which is also a tertiary health care facility.

    Study Variables

    Independent Variable

    Socio demographic characteristics

    Dependent Variables

    knowledge, risk perception and attitude.

    Data Analysis

    Filled questionnaires were sorted and data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. Data were then presented in the form of frequency tables, cross tabulation using chi-square. Bivariate analysis was done as applicable. Level of significance was set with P-value less than 0.05.

    Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria

    Inclusion Criteria

    All consenting health care workers who are staff of the hospital.

    Exclusion Criteria

    Patients, visitors and all non-staff were excluded.

    Ethical Consideration: Ethical approval for this research was gotten from the Human Research and Ethics Committee of the Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti. Verbal Informed consent was gotten from all the respondents and only those who consented were recruited for the study.

    The study was carried out between August 2020 and April 2021.

    Results

    Table 1 shows the Socio demographic characteristics of the study participants. The total number of HCWs surveyed was 272. Among them, 118 (43.4%) were between the age of 30-39 years, the mean ± SD is 37.78 ± 8.17 with a range of 20 – 58.

    Most of the respondents surveyed were female 164 (60.3%) while 118 (69.1%) had tertiary education qualification. Similarly, most of the HCW surveyed were nurses 88 (32.4%) Figure 1

    Table 2 and Figure 2 most of the respondents surveyed 260(95.6%) had good knowledge of Covid 19

    Table 3 and Figure 3 showed that most of the respondents surveyed had positive attitude 252 (92.6%) while Table 4 and Figure 4 showed that risk perception among most of the respondents were positive 244 (89.7%).

    Table 4 and Figure 4 shows the risk perception of the HCWs to Covid 19. A greater percentage of the HCWs 244(89.3%) had a positive risk perception while only 28(10.3%) had a negative perception.

    Table 5 showed the association between socio demographic characteristics and attitude with marital status found to be significantly associated with attitude at a p-value of 0.020 with divorce and single respondents having the highest value of 100% and 97.7% respectively. Similarly, the cadre of the respondents was also found to be significantly associated with attitude at a p value of 0.003 with doctors and laboratory scientist having a value of 100% each.

    Table 6 showed the association between socio demographic characteristics and risk perception. This study found sex to be of significant association with risk perception at a p value of 0.013 with males having a higher positive risk perception 103 (95.4%) than females 141 (86%). Also, years of practice was found to be significantly associated with risk perception at a p value of 0.009 with those who have been in practice for more than 10 years having the highest value of positive risk perception at 122 (91.7%).

    Table 7 shows the association between socio demographic characteristics and knowledge. This study found that 17(81%) , 180(95.7%) and 63(100%) of the respondents with secondary, tertiary and post tertiary education respectively had good knowledge of Covid 19 at a significant p value of 0.005. Similarly, there was also a significant association between years of practice and knowledge at a p value of 0.038 where 52 (91.4%), 76(93%) and 131(98.5%) of the respondents with <5 years, 5-10 years and >10 years, years of experience post graduation had good knowledge showing a progressive increase in the percentage with increasing years of experience.

    Table 8 shows the association between knowledge, attitude and risk perception. This study found that there was a significant association between knowledge and risk perception at a p value of 0.025.

    Figure 1. Knowledge of COVID 19 among the healthcare workers
    Figure 1.

    Figure 2. Source of knowledge about COVID 19
    Figure 2.

    Figure 3. Attitude of health care workers to COVID 19
    Figure 3.

    Figure 4. Overall risk perception of health workers to COVID 19
    Figure 4.

    Table 1. Socio-demographic distribution of the study participants
    Variable Frequency Percent
    Age (years)    
    20 – 29 41 15.1
    30 – 39 118 43.4
    40 – 49 81 29.8
    50 – 59 32 11.8
    Mean ± SD 37.78 ± 8.17
    Range 20 – 58
    Sex    
    Male 108 39.7
    Female 164 60.3
    Educational qualification    
    Secondary 21 7.7
    Tertiary 188 69.1
    Post Tertiary 63 23.2
    Marital status    
    Single 44 16.2
    Married 222 81.6
    Divorced 3 1.1
    Widow/ widower 3 1.1
    Religion    
    Christianity 262 96.3
    Islam 7 2.6
    Traditional 3 1.1
    Tribe    
    Yoruba 248 91.2
    Ibo 10 3.7
    Hausa 5 1.8
    Others 9 3.3
    Cadre    
    Doctors 73 26.8
    Nurses 88 32.4
    Pharm 6 2.2
    Lab 14 5.1
    CHEW 36 13.2
    Health attendants 41 15.1
    Others 14 5.1
    Years of practice    
    < 5 Years 58 21.3
    5 - 10 Years 81 29.8
    > 10 Years 133 48.9

    Table 2. Knowledge of HCWs on Covid 19
    Knowledge of COVID 19 n (%) n (%)
    Have you ever heard of the COVID 19 is 1 to 14 272(100) 0(0.0)
    Do you know that the COVID 19 pandemic is caused by SARS cov 2 186(68.4) 86(31.6)
    Do you know that the COVID 19 pandemic was first reported in Wuhan China 239(87.9) 33(12.1)
    The incubation period of COVID 19 is 1 to 14 days 253(93..0) 19(7.0)
    The virus is spread mainly from person to person 254(93.4) 18(6.6)
    The virus is also airborne 234(86.0) 38(14.0)
    The following are some of the symptoms of COVID 19- cough, fever and difficulty in breathing 260(95.6) 12(4.4)
    There is no known drug for COVID 19 223(82.0) 49(18.0)
    Use of hand sanitizer and face mask can prevent the infection 262(96.3) 10(3.7)
    Regular hand washing and physical social distancing can help prevent the spread of the disease 266(97.8) 6(2.2)
    Presence of underlying illness such as hypertension and diabetes can make the infection more severe 248(91.2) 24(8.8)

    Table 3. Attitude of HCWs to Covid 19
      SA A N SD D
    Attitude n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
    Do you agree that COVID 19 will eventually be successfully controlled 123(45.2) 134(49.3) 10(3.7) 2(0.7) 3(1.1)
    In your opinion will good personal hygiene reduce the risk of COVID 19 infection 106(39.0) 144(52.9) 12(4.4) 7(2.6) 3(1.1)
    Do you agree that guidelines from the hospital COVID 19 taskforce will help in controlling the disease in the hospital 113(41.5) 123(45.2) 22(8.1) 4(1.5) 10(3.7)
    Will you work or live with people who have been infected with COVID 19 29(10.7) 69(25.4) 55(20.2) 51(18.8) 68(25.0)
    People infected with COVID 19 are careless with their health 22(8.1) 36(13.2) 29(10.7) 87(32.0) 98(36.0)
    COVID 19 infected individuals should be isolated even after treatment 20(7.4) 41(15.1) 32(11.8) 77(28.3) 102(37.5)
    COVID 19 can be transmitted through sexual intercourse 34(12.5) 56(20.6) 30(11.0) 67(24.6) 85(31.3)
    People infected with COVID 19 should not be allowed to come to work 113(41.5) 99(36.4) 29(10.7) 12(4.4) 19(7.0)
    Tuberculosis/Leprosy is better than COVID 19 31(11.4) 67(24.6) 54(19.9) 56(20.6) 64(23.5)
    COVID 19 is a punishment from God 28(10.3) 26(9.6) 35(12.9) 120(44.1) 63(23.2)

    Table 4. Risk perceptions of HCWs to Covid 19
    Risk perceptions n (%) n (%)
    COVID 19 is a severe debilitating infection 237(87.1) 35(12.9)
    COVID 19 is highly infectious 257(94.5) 15(5.5)
    COVID 19 can cause respiratory failure 251(92.3) 21(7.7)
    COVID 19 can cause severe diarrhea 161(59.2) 111(40.8)
    COVID 19 can cause severe dehydration 199(73.2) 73(26.8)
    COVID 19 can cause lung injury for those who recover 174(64.0) 98(36.0)
    It is safe to see a COVID 19 patient with PPE 235(86.4) 37(13.6)
    It is safe to operate on a COVID 19 patient without PPE 58(21.3) 214(78.7)
    It is safe to live in the same house with a COVID 19 patient without maintaining physical distance 27(9.9) 245(90.1)
    It is safe to stay in the same office with an asymptomatic COVID 19 patient with the AC on 30(11.0) 242(89.0)
    There is no risk of infection if you see a COVID 19 patient in the same clinic with other patients 55(20.2) 217(79.8)
    Disinfecting the clinics and waiting area with hydrogen peroxide reduces the chances of infection to zero 132(48.5) 140(51.5)
    Wearing PPE’s (face mask, googles, gloves etc) will reduce the chances of infection among HCWs 251(92.3) 21(7.7)
    Will you attend to a confirmed COVID 19 patient if provided with PPEs 231(84.9) 41(15.1)
    Will you enter a ward where COVID 19 patients are kept if need be 168(61.8) 104(38.2)

    Table 5. Association between socio-demographic characteristics and attitude
      Positive Negative Total χ 2 p value
    Variables n (%) n (%) N (%)    
    Age          
    20 – 29 39 (95.1) 2 (4.9) 41 4.300F 0.211
    30 – 39 109 (92.4) 9 (7.6) 118    
    40 – 49 72 (88.9) 9 (11.1) 81    
    50 – 59 32 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 32    
    Sex          
    Male 100 (92.6) 8 (7.4) 108 0.001 0.978
    Female 152 (92.7) 12 (7.3) 164    
    Educational qualification          
    Secondary 17 (81.0) 4 (19.0) 21 5.214F 0.059
    Tertiary 174 (92.6) 14 (7.4) 188    
    Post tertiary 61 (96.8) 2 (3.2) 63    
    Marital status          
    Single 43 (97.7) 1 (2.3) 44 9.707F 0.020*
    Married 205 (92.3) 17 (7.7) 222    
    Divorced 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3    
    Widow/ widower 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 3    
    Religion          
    Christianity 242 )92.4) 20 (7.6) 262 0.244F 1.000
    Islam 7 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 7    
    Traditional 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3    
    Tribe          
    Yoruba 229 (92.3) 19 (7.7) 248 0.392F 1.000
    Others 23 (95.8) 1 (4.2) 24    
    Cadre          
    Doctor 73 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 73 17.488F 0.003*
    Nurses 82 (93.2) 6 (6.8) 88    
    Pharm 5 (83.3) 1 (16.7) 6    
    Lab 14 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 14    
    CHEW 32 (88.9) 4 (11.1) 36    
    Health attendants 35 (85.4) 6 (14.6) 41    
    Others 11 (78.6) 3 (21.4) 14    
    Years of practice          
    < 5 years 52 (89.7) 6 (10.3) 58 1.067F 0.623
    5 – 10 years 76 (93.8) 5 (6.2) 81    
    >10 years 124 (93.2) 9 (6.8) 133    

    Table 6. Association between socio-demographic characteristics and risk perception
      Good Poor Total χ 2 p value
    Variables n (%) n (%) N (%)    
    Age          
    20 – 29 37 (90.2) 4 (9.8) 41 1.294F 0.754
    30 – 39 103 (87.3) 15 (12.7) 118    
    40 – 49 74 (91.4) 7 (8.6) 81    
    50 – 59 30 (93.8) 2 (6.3) 32    
    Sex          
    Male 103 (95.4) 5 (4.6) 108 6.224 0.013*
    Female 141 (86.0) 23 (14.0) 164    
    Educational qualification          
    Secondary 19 (90.5) 2 (9.5) 21 4.715 0.095
    Tertiary 164 (87.2) 24 (12.8) 188    
    Post tertiary 61 (96.8) 2 (3.2) 63    
    Marital status          
    Single 42 (95.5) 2 (4.5) 44 2.049F 0.580
    Married 196 (88.3) 26 (11.7) 222    
    Divorced 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3    
    Widow/ widower 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3    
    Religion          
    Christianity 234 (89.3) 28 (10.7) 262 0.293F 1.000
    Islam 7 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 7    
    Traditional 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3    
    Tribe          
    Yoruba 221 (89.1) 27 (10.9) 248 1.070F 0.486
    Others 23 (95.8) 1 (4.2) 24    
    Cadre          
    Doctor 69 (94.5) 4 (55.5) 73 7.867F 0.192
    Nurses 76 (86.4) 12 (13.6) 88    
    Pharm 4 (66.7) 2 (33.3) 6    
    Lab 14 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 14    
    CHEW 31 (86.1) 5 (13.9) 36    
    Health attendants 37 (90.2) 4 (9.8) 41    
    Others 13 (92.9) 1 (7.1) 14    
    Years of practice          
    < 5 years 56 (96.6) 2 (3.4) 58 9.466F 0.009*
    5 – 10 years 66 (81.5) 15 (18.5) 81    
    >10 years 122 (91.7) 11 (8.3) 133    

    Table 7. Association between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge
      Good Poor Total χ 2 p value
    Variables n (%) n (%) N (%)    
    Age          
    20 – 29 39 (95.1) 2 (4.9) 41 0.428F 0.971
    30 – 39 112 (94.9) 6 (5.1) 118    
    40 – 49 78 (96.3) 3 (3.7) 81    
    50 – 59 31 (96.9) 1 (3.1) 32    
    Sex          
    Male 104 (96.3) 4 (3.7) 108 0.213F 0.768
    Female 156 (95.1) 8 (4.9) 164    
    Educational qualification          
    Secondary 17 (81.0) 4 (19.0) 21 10.245F 0.005
    Tertiary 180 (95.7) 8 (4.3) 188    
    Post tertiary 63 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 63    
    Marital status          
    Single 42 (95.5) 2 (4.5) 44 1.141F 1.000
    Married 212 (95.5) 10 (4.5) 222    
    Divorced 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3    
    Widow/ widower 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3    
    Religion          
    Christianity 251 (95.8) 11 (4.2) 262 2.757F 0.368
    Islam 6 (85.7) 1 (14.3) 7    
    Traditional 3 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 3    
    Tribe          
    Yoruba 237 (95.6) 11 (4.4) 248 0.004F 1.000
    Others 23 (95.8) 1 (4.2) 24    
    Cadre          
    Doctor 71 (97.3) 2 (2.7) 73 7.300F 0.200
    Nurses 86 (97.7) 2 (2.3) 88    
    Pharm 6 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 6    
    Lab 12 (85.7) 2 (14.3) 14    
    CHEW 34 (94.4) 2 (5.6) 36    
    Health attendants 37 (90.2) 4 (9.8) 41    
    Others 14 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 14    
    Years of practice          
    < 5 years 53 (91.4) 5 (8.6) 58 6.036F 0.038
    5 – 10 years 76 (93.8) 5 (6.2) 81    
    >10 years 131 (98.5) 2 (1.5) 133    

    Table 8. Association between knowledge, attitude and risk perception
      Good Poor Total χ 2 p value
    Variables n (%) n (%) N (%)    
    Knowledge          
    Good 236 (90.8) 24 (9.2) 260 7.216F 0.025*
    Poor 8 (66.7) 4 (33.3) 12    
    Attitude          
    Positive 225 (89.3) 27 (10.7) 252 0.655F 0.704
    Negative 19 (95.0) 1 (5.0) 20    

    χ2: Chi square test; F: Fisher’s exact test; *: p value <0.05

    Discussion

    This study found that all the respondents have heard of COVID-19. This is not surprising considering that the study was carried out among HCW and also Covid 19 is a pandemic currently ravaging the world. Similar findings were also recorded in studies done in Nigeria, Uganda, China and other parts of the world 1, 5, 21, 22, 23, 24 Generally, majority 260 (95.6%) of the respondents in this study had good knowledge of Covid 19, this is also similar to findings in studies done in Nigeria15,21Greece,25 China23 and other parts of the world15,22,26,27

    This study also found out that the most common source of information amongst the respondents on the disease was the internet/social media 187 (68.8%) followed by the Radio 94 (34.6%), this is in contrast to a study done in Greece24 and part of Nigeria 24 where the Radio was the most common source of information followed by the internet/social media. However, the findings were similar to those of studies done Nigeria and China 20,23 consequently, considering the importance of information dissemination to the control and eradication of Covid 19 stakeholders should use the internet/social media to disseminate information about Covid 19 more as this is a major source of information for HCWs. The traditional method of dissemination of information such as the radio and television should nonetheless not be discarded as this study also found that they are still a useful source of information dissemination.

    Attitudes of people as a mediator between their knowledge and practices have an important role for better controlling of epidemics and pandemics of infectious diseases; they facilitate the process of changing people’s behaviour. Also, risk perceptions can influence health-related behaviours and change risky behaviours thus giving individuals a better outcome in the event of a health challenge.28 This study found that overall; the attitude of the majority of the HCWs was positive as evidenced by a total number of 252 (92.6%) HCWs with a positive attitude. This positive attitude may also be connected to the good knowledge exhibited by the respondents who are HCWs in this study. Similarly, this good knowledge was also associated with a high level of positive risk perception 244 (89/7%), similar findings were reported in studies done Nigeria 15Greece25 China29however, findings in this study contrasted sharply with findings in a study done in Iran where only about 50% of the respondents had a positive attitude towards Covid 1930. Study done by Srichan et al31 revealed that knowledge and attitudes 0toward disease prevention and control are poor in northern Tanzanian, while another study in Peru showed that over 75% of the respondents had a poor attitude to covid 1932. Ilesanmi et al in their study showed that there no significant difference existed in the risk perception, and KAP towards COVID-19 prevention among Doctors and Nurses 33. Most of the respondents in this study 236 (86.7%) agreed to follow the guidelines of the hospital Covid 19 taskforce this is in sharp contrast to findings in a study done in Thailand where only 15% of the respondents agreed to follow the Covid 19 guidelines

    There is yet no cure for Covid 19 despite the extensive research on going on the diseases. The fact still remains that Covid 19 is a serious life threatening disease with a high mortality rate particularly in severe cases.1,4,5This study found that there was a high risk perception to covid 19, this may again be due to the fact that the sampling population were made up of HCWs. 244 (89.7%) of the respondents had a positive risk perceptionand this was similarto findings in another study done in Nigeria20

    Limitations and Recommendations

    This study is a hospital based study where the knowledge, attitude and risk perception is expected to be high due to the fact that the study population is made up of HCWs and as such can be used to use to assess the level of knowledge of health personnel which is expected to be higher than that of the community. This may also be a limitation, a community based study will help take care of this limitation, and similarly a comparative study between urban and rural communities will be more revealing. We recommend that similar study be conducted among different classes of people such as teachers, bankers, artisans, clergy etc

    Conclusion

    Overall, there was a high level of knowledge, high positive attitude and a high risk perception in the study. Consequently, to ensure that this high level is maintained, there is need for continuous health education and promotion.

    Funding

    This study was self funded

    Ethical Approval

    Ethical approval was sought and gotten from the Human Research and Ethical committee of the Federal Teaching hospital, Ido- Ekiti. Ekiti state

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